Simian Crease or Single transverse palmar crease ?

In humans, a
single transverse palmar crease is a single crease that extends across the palm of the
hand, formed by the fusion of the two palmar creases that people typically have. Because it resembles the usual condition of non-human simians, it is also known as a simian crease or simian line, although these terms have fallen out of favor due to its pejorative connotation.

A simian crease is a single line that runs across the palm of the hand. People normally have three creases in their palms.

The term “simian crease” is not used much anymore since it tends to have a negative meaning (it refers to monkey or ape). The crease is usually just refered to as a single palmar crease.


The presence of a single transverse palmar crease can be, but is not always, a symptom associated with abnormal medical conditions, such as Fetal alcohol syndrome, or with genetic chromosomal abnormalities, including Down syndrome(chromosome 21), cri du chat syndrome (chromosome 5), Noonan syndrome (chromosome 12), Patau syndrome (chromosome 13), Edward’s syndrome (chromosome 18), and Aarskog-Scott syndrome (X-linked recessive). Bilateral or unilateral single palmar creases are also associated with aberrations on chromosome 9[4]. Also sometimes found on hand of affected side of patients with Poland Syndrome.

Males are twice as likely as females to have this condition, and it tends to run in families. In its non-symptomatic form, it is more common among Asians and native Americans than among other populations, and in some families there is a tendency to inherit the condition unilaterally, that is, on one hand only


Strong lines (called palmar flexion creases) appear on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. The palm normally has three of these creases. But sometimes, the horizontal creases join together to form a single one.

Palmar creases develop while the baby is growing in the womb, usually by the 12th week ofgestation.

A single palmar crease appears in approximately 1 out of 30 people. Males are twice as likely as females to have this condition. Some palmar creases indicate problems with development and are associated with disorders like Down syndrome.

How do you think your university studies will affect your career in the future?

requirement for University of The People

– Munandar Hanafiah –

I believe university gives us some foundation which necessarily needs in our career, especially in academic record, so the company which we apply to can read our curriculum vitae and transcript given by university. With this document, the company can make a decision whether the applicants could cope to their working style or not.

University studies also bring the habit of student to become responsible in their given job. The company itself would prefer to have a good staff and also self motivated, therefore I believe that university bring some motivations to students to get some good score. University studies also give the student some knowledge and place for sharing questions and need for socializing everywhere and anywhere.

When we are taking career in one company or more, we can see some of knowledge given by university or friends we know in our university would give us some relations that we can share. People from university studies have some good knowledge, could think 2 or 3 times faster and believe can manage themselves to become a better person so they are given some responsibilities to organize and motivate their subordinates.

In my company where I am working as Instrument and Control Engineer Assistant in Oil and Gas Company based in Indonesia, I am regarded in salary, position, and be heard by others because of my background from university. Actually, I took Information Systems as my study in University. The only thing I know was about computer, but when I’m working here, which is technically electrical degree is highly appreciate here; I should make some changes that I should know and improve myself to study electrical or everything needed by this company from me.

Yes of course, my studies in computer are highly regarded when this company needs their computer problems solved. But, I am here to assist instrument and control engineer which is officially not my studies. I am coursed by the company for about 3 months, read some books to improve my knowledge about what should I do, joins some forums to have some discussions, implement anything I’ve known in my work. Sometimes I feel not satisfied enough to have computer studies only, I need something useful for my company here where they believe in me. Studying harder by me is hard if there’s no help from expert. It took a long time not taking course of Instrumentation and Control or maybe electrical engineering.

I think that’s some point I gave you about taking university studies or not. I believe that university studies give some good impact to the student. Knowledge should be guided in accordance to become expert, but there are also some autodidacts who can only study by their own need and they are such given mind.  Some knowledge also needs some practice. Without practice, we got nothing. Computer programming for example, studying without practicing to make programs will be useless. Sometimes we need trial and error to improve our knowledge and skill; therefore it is called practice makes perfect.

One Day in Your Life – Michael Jackson

One day in your life
You’ll remember a place
Someone touching your face
You’ll come back and you’ll look around, you’ll . . .
One day in your life
You’ll remember the love you found here
You’ll remember me somehow
Though you don’t need me now
I will stay in your heart
And when things fall apart
You’ll remember one day . . .
One day in your life
When you find that you’re always waiting
For a love we used to share
Just call my name, and I’ll be there
You’ll remember me somehow
Though you don’t need me now
I will stay in your heart
And when things fall apart
You’ll remember one day . . .
One day in your life
When you find that you’re always lonely
For a love we used to share
Just call my name, and I’ll be there.

( Good Bye the king of POP – Michael Jackson )

From This Moment On – Shania Twain

(I do swear that I’ll always be there.
I’d give anything and everything and I will always care.
Through weakness and strength, happiness and sorrow,
for better for worse, I will love you with
every beat of my heart.)
From this moment life has begun
From this moment you are the one
Right beside you is where I belong
From this moment on

From this moment I have been blessed
I live only for your happiness
And for your love I’d give my last breath
From this moment on

I give my hand to you with all my heart
Can’t wait to live my life with you, can’t wait to start
You and I will never be apart
My dreams came true because of you

From this moment as long as I live
I will love you, I promise you this
There is nothing I wouldn’t give
From this moment on

You’re the reason I believe in love
And you’re the answer to my prayers from up above
All we need is just the two of us
My dreams came true because of you

From this moment as long as I live
I will love you, I promise you this
There is nothing I wouldn’t give
From this moment
I will love you as long as I live
From this moment on

(dedicated to my BEST FRIEND GIRL out there)

Flow Measurements

Ada macam2 metode pengukuran aliran dari uap air, air, minyak, gas, udara, dll. Biasanya pengukuran menggunakan alat dengan tipe DP ( Delta Pressure) atau mengukur melalui perbedaan tekanan.

Ada macam-macam alat pengukur beda tekanan :

1. Orifice Plate
OrificeOrifice Plate
Orifice Plate merupakan alat yang paling umum digunakan dalam pengukuran aliran. Orifice plate adalah suatu pelat metal yang tipis dengan lubang ditengah2nya.  Aliran dapat dilihat dari pemasangan orifice, lubang yang tajam adalah tempat upstream/aliran masuk dan lubang yang agak landai sebagai tempat downstream/tempat keluar.

Ketika orifice plate di pasang pada aliran (biasanya dipasang diantara flanges), orifice meningkatkan laju alir melalui lubang orifice yang kecil yang mengakibatkan adanya perbedaan tekanan (DP). Tekanan ini difungsikan sebagai laju alir / flow rate.

Keuntungan menggunakan Orifice Plate :

  1. Perbedaan tekanan yang tinggi dapat dihitung
  2. Memiliki data lengkap
  3. Harga dan cara pemasangan yang murah dan mudah
  4. Gampang diganti

Kerugian menggunakan Orifice Plate :

  1. Tidak dapat digunakan pada fluida yang kotor yang dapat mengakibatkan erosi pada orifice tersebut
  2. Tingginya terjadi kehilangan tekanan secara permanen

2. Venturi Tubes

Untuk pemakaian dimana tingginya kehilangan tekanan secara permanen tidak diperbolehkan, venturi tube digunakan. Dikarenakan tempat masuk dan keluar secara bertahap berkurva seperti gambar dibawah.Venturi Tube

Tetapi, Venturi tube sendiri memiliki kekurangan :

  1. Kalibrasi yang telah dihitung, kurang akurat daripada orifice plate
  2. Dibutuhkan transmiter aliran dengan sensitifitas yang tinggi, karena perbedaan tekanan yang dihasilkan lebih rendah daripada orifice plate.
  3. Lebih Besar dan lebih mahal.

3. Flow Nozzle

Flow nozzle juga disebut setengah venturi.
Flow NozzleNozzle

Flow nozzle memiliki gabungan sifat dari orifice plate dengan venturi. Karena bentuknya, flow nozzle memiliki sifat kehilangan tekanan permanen yang rendah daripada orifice plate tapi lebih tinggi daripada venturi. Flow nozzle juga lebih murah daripada venturi tube sendiri.

Flow nozzle digunakan pada pengukuran aliran dengan kecepatan alir yang tinggi. merekalebih kuat dan tahan erosi daripada orifice plate.


Instrumentasi adalah seni dalam pengukuran nilai suatu parameter pada tekanan, aliran, level, dan tempratur yang menghasilkan sinyal yang dapat dibaca atau di konversi dalam suatu parameter, cth : psig, MMscfd, %.

Sinyal output adalah standar sinyal yang dapat diproses oleh alat lain untuk pembacaan, alarms ataupun untuk kontrol otomatis. Sinyal electronic biasanya menggunakan 4 – 20mA dan sinyal pneumatic menggunakan 20 – 100 kPa.

Pressure Gauge Thermocouples Rosemount Transmitter