The managerial culture in Indonesia

Cultural unfit presumptions were imposed based on common comparison between Indonesian origins and Chinese, whom had played economic role successfully in the country. perspectives on Indonesian work orientations found: (a) no speculation on working and life, (b) working hard is attempted just to “get food for survival for day”, and short term basic need orientation; (c) trying to get harmony with nature and stressing maintenance; (d) orientation to the present time, and (e) social contact for economic survival or business are changed to group maintenance, with proverbs “eat or not, but live together.” Among elite groups, cultural work values were identified with (a) aims of living and working are for status, power and symbol of prosperity, (b) doing business, consulting business, farming, trading and manufacturing are given low values, and (c) there are ‘amal’ concept, oriented to achieve symbol for power, status, and prosperity, not for achievement (Kartodirdjo, 1982). Indonesians are characterized with (a) normative work obligation to work and help group members without asking entitlement for rewards (gotong royong), and (b) orientation to vertical line.

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Ten Commandments of Ethical Hacking.

In his book Hacking For Dummies (Wiley), Kevin discussed the hacker genre
and ethos. In Chapter 1, he enumerated the Ethical Hacking Commandments.
In that book, Kevin listed three commandments. But (as with everything in
networking) the list has grown to fill the available space. Now these com-
mandments were not brought down from Mount Sinai, but thou shalt follow
these commandments shouldst thou decide to become a believer in the doc-
trine of ethical hacking.

The Ten Commandments are :

1. Thou shalt set thy goals.

How does ethical hacking relate to penetration testing? Ethical hacking is a
form of penetration testing originally used as a marketing ploy but has come
to mean a penetration test of all systems — where there is more than one goal
In either case, you have a goal. Your evaluation of the security of a wireless
network should seek answers to three basic questions:
What can an intruder see on the target access points or networks?
What can an intruder do with that information?
Does anyone at the target notice the intruder’s attempts — or successes?
You might set a simplistic goal, such as finding unauthorized wireless access
points. Or you might set a goal that requires you to obtain information from a
system on the wired network. Whatever you choose, you must articulate
your goal and communicate it to your sponsors.

2. Thou shalt plan thy work, lest thou go off course.

With respect to your plan, you should do the following:
1. Identify the networks you intend to test.
2. Specify the testing interval.
3. Specify the testing process.
4. Develop a plan and share it with all stakeholders.
5. Obtain approval of the plan.
Share your plan. Socialize it with as many people as you can. Don’t worry
that lots of people will know that you are going to hack into the wireless net-
work. If your organization is like most others, then it’s unlikely they can
combat the organizational inertia to do anything to block your efforts. It is
important, though, to remember that you do want to do your testing under
“normal” conditions.


Financial management entails planning for the future of a person or a business enterprise to ensure a positive cash flow. It includes the administration and maintenance of financial assets. Besides, financial management covers the process of identifying and managing risks.

The primary concern of financial management is the assessment rather than the techniques of financial quantification. A financial manager looks at the available data to judge the performance of enterprises. Managerial finance is an interdisciplinary approach that borrows from both managerial accounting and corporate finance.

Some experts refer to financial management as the science of money management. The primary usage of this term is in the world of financing business activities. However, financial management is important at all levels of human existence because every entity needs to look after its finances.

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Linux Command Sudo vs SU

The sudo command

sudo – execute a command as another user

sudo -V | -h | -l | -L | -v | -k | -K | -s | [ -H ] [-P ] [-S ] [ -b ] | [ -p prompt ] [ -c class| ] [ -a auth_type ] [ -u username|#uid ] command


sudo allows a permitted user to execute a command as the superuser or another user, as specified in the sudoers file. The real and effective uid and gid are set to match those of the target user as specified in the passwd file (the group vector is also initialized when the target user is not root). By default, sudo requires that users authenticate themselves with a password (NOTE: by default this is the user’s password, not the root password). Once a user has been authenticated, a timestamp is updated and the user may then use sudo without a password for a short period of time (5
minutes unless overridden in sudoers).

sudo determines who is an authorized user by consulting the file /etc/sudoers. By giving sudo the -v flag a user can update the time stamp without running a command. The password prompt itself will also time out if the user’s password is not entered within 5
minutes (unless overridden via sudoers).

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10 Tips for Ubuntu Newbies.

Ubuntu has become the most popular Linux distribution for new Linux users. It’s easy to install, easy to use, and usually “just works.” But moving to a different operating system can be confusing, no matter how well-designed it is. Here’s a list of tips that might save you some time while you’re getting used to Ubuntu.

1. Getting multimedia to work

The default Ubuntu install contains free software only, which means that it doesn’t support some popular multimedia formats straight out of the box. This is inconvenient, but the Ubuntu folks have good reasons for not shipping with support for MP3, DVDs, and so forth — including that software could cause them some legal headaches, or incur some serious fees.

Fortunately, as a user, you don’t need to worry about fees (though some of the packages may not be legal due to patent restrictions or restrictions on circumventing copy protection, depending on where you live). The Ubuntu wiki has a page on restricted formats that explains how to get the packages you need. However, if you run Ubuntu on AMD64 or PowerPC hardware, you’ll still be out in the cold for some of the packages, since some multimedia formats depend on proprietary software that’s not available for those hardware platforms.
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Freeware vs Shareware vs Open Source

imageWhat are the differences between three models of "free" software, and why does it matter?
With all the excitement, many people are actually confusing open source software with two other models of "free" software–with potentially serious consequences. The three terms are used so interchangeably by people that their definitions in common usage have got mixed up. We will try to clear up what these three exactly mean and what are the differences.

The word "freeware" has been so overused, its meaning is no longer clear. Today it is often synonymous with "shareware," but for our purposes, I will define "freeware" as "software which can be downloaded, used, and copied without restrictions." (See this definition.)

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image Because of the rise of small ‘netbook’ laptops like the Asus Eee, which don’t come with any kind of CD/DVD drive, it’s quite handy to have good, clear instructions on installing Linux from a USB stick. Even if you do have an optical drive, why bother burning a CD every time? It’s so wasteful.

So I worked out a really easy way to transfer the contents of ther Ubuntu LiveCD to my USB stick and set it bootable, and I thought I’d document the process here in case it can help anyone else.

This method also works with Edubuntu, Kubuntu and Xubuntu, as well as most other Ubuntu-based distros and even some other distributions too (basically, as long as the CD uses isolinux as the bootloader, which 99% of them do). It won’t hurt to give it a try, and I’m happy to help anyone out who wants to give it a go.

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